§61.65 a Instrument rating requirements

(a) General. A person who applies for an instrument rating must: 

(1) Hold at least a current private pilot certificate with an airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift rating appropriate to the instrument rating sought; 

(2) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language. If the applicant is unable to meet any of these requirements due to a medical condition, the Administrator may place such operating limitations on the applicant’s pilot certificate as are necessary for the safe operation of the aircraft; 

(3) Receive and log ground training from an authorized instructor or accomplish a home-study course of training on the aeronautical knowledge areas of paragraph (b) of this section that apply to the instrument rating sought; 

(4) Receive a logbook or training record endorsement from an authorized instructor certifying that the person is prepared to take the required knowledge test; 

(5) Receive and log training on the areas of operation of paragraph (c) of this section from an authorized instructor in an aircraft, flight simulator, or flight training device that represents an airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift appropriate to the instrument rating sought; 

(6) Receive a logbook or training record endorsement from an authorized instructor certifying that the person is prepared to take the required practical test; 

(7) Pass the required knowledge test on the aeronautical knowledge areas of paragraph (b) of this section; however, an applicant is not required to take another knowledge test when that person already holds an instrument rating; and 

(8) Pass the required practical test on the areas of operation in paragraph (c) of this section in— 

(i) An airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift appropriate to the rating sought; or 

(ii) A flight simulator or a flight training device appropriate to the rating sought and for the specific maneu-ver or instrument approach procedure performed. If an approved flight training device is used for the practical test, the instrument approach procedures conducted in that flight training device are limited to one precision and one nonprecision approach, provided the flight training device is approved for the procedure performed. 

(b) Aeronautical knowledge. A person who applies for an instrument rating must have received and logged ground training from an authorized instructor or accomplished a home-study course on the following aeronautical knowledge areas that apply to the instrument rating sought: 

(1) Federal Aviation Regulations of this chapter that apply to flight operations under IFR; 

(2) Appropriate information that applies to flight operations under IFR in the ‘‘Aeronautical Information Manual;’’

(3) Air traffic control system and procedures for instrument flight operations; 

(4) IFR navigation and approaches by use of navigation systems; 

(5) Use of IFR en route and instrument approach procedure charts; 

(6) Procurement and use of aviation weather reports and forecasts and the elements of forecasting weather trends based on that information and personal observation of weather conditions; 

(7) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft under instrument flight rules and conditions; (8) Recognition of critical weather situations and windshear avoidance;

(9) Aeronautical decision making and judgment; and 

(10) Crew resource management, including crew communication and coordination.

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